Dr.Anthony Campbell, FF(hom) MRCP (UK),
has been a consultant physician at The Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital
for almost a quarter of a century, and is a former editor of The British
Homoeopathic Journal. His published books include "Two faces of Homeopathy"
a critical historical survey of the development of homoeopathy. Some excerpts
Hahnemann was born at Meissen, in south-east
Germany, on 10 April 1755, at approximately midnight. So, at least, Hahnemann
himself always maintained; but the entry in the church register at Meissen
records the birth as having occurred on the morning of 11th April, and
this later date was adopted by some homeopaths and gave rise to disagreement
about the right day to celebrate the Master's birthday.
Hahnemann's father was a craftsman who worked
in the famous Meissen pottery trade. He was not very well off, so that
it was with some difficulty that the young Samuel persuaded him to allow
him to become a medical student. As a boy he was put briefly to work for
a Leipzig grocer. In 1775, however, he entered the University of Leipzig,
where he quickly became self-supporting by means of teaching and translation.
Growing dissatisfied with the standard of medical education at Leipzig
he departed in 1776 for Vienna, but before completing his studies he left
to take up a post as librarian and family physician to the Governor of
Transylvania, Baron von Brukenthal, at Hermannstadt. It was at this time
that he became a Freemason. It has been claimed that the library at Hermannstadt
contained esoteric alchemical works, including those of Paracelsus, and
that it was dipping into these that planted the seed of homeopathy in
Hahnemann's mind. This is certainly possible, but no evidence to support
the speculation exists.
Hahnemann's Birth place
| In 1779 Hahnemann
left his employment with von Brukenthal to complete his medical education
at the University of Erlangen, where he was finally awarded his doctorate
in medicine in August 1779.
In 1780 he established his first medical practice in the small mining
town of Hettstedt, where he recorded his disillusionment with the medical
treatments of his day, especially blood-letting. Soon afterwards he moved
to Dassau, where he began to take an interest in chemistry. This was a
momentous period for chemists. In Hahnemann's lifetime the phlogiston
theory of combustion was disproved, a number of gases were identified,
the compositions of air and water were discovered, and the atomic theory
was placed on a surer footing. Hahnemann felt the excitement of this atmosphere
of discovery and carried out some chemical research of his own, though
the atomic theory seems not to have entered his conceptual framework.
In 1782 he married Johanna Kuchler, an
apothecary's daughter. A year later their first child, a daughter, was
born - the first of a large family. Still Hahnemann did not settle down
but continued to move about. In 1785 he was in Dresden, where he worked
as locum tenens for the Medical Officer of Health. On the death of the
incumbent Hahnemann applied for the substantive appointment, but he was
unsuccessful and set off once more on his travels. He seems then largely
to have abandoned medical practice for a time and to have concentrated
his energies on translation, by which he supported his family and himself
for a number of years. He also continued his chemical research; he published
a test for the fraudulent adulteration of wine with lead, which was officially
adopted in Prussia, and he described a method for detecting arsenic in
forensic material. It is said that while in Dresden he met the famous
French chemist Lavoisier, later to be guillotined during the Revolution.
1789 Hahnemann and his family moved to Leipzig. This was Hahnemann's
third sojourn in that city. He did not practise medicine there but
continued to write, translate. and study. His family now consisted
of six persons, and he found himself hard pressed financially.
There is a touching story that gives a vivid picture of the tribulations
undergone by the Hahnemann family. At one time money was so short
that Hahnemann used to weigh out a portion of bread daily for each
member of his family.
When one of his daughters fell ill she was unable to eat her ration,
and so stored it away in a box until she should recover. But she began
to feel worse rather than better, and fearing she would die she called
her favourite sister and handed over to her the store of dried-up bread
as a legacy so that it should not be wasted.
To have been brought up in the Hahnemann
household seems to have been something of an ordeal in various ways and
it left its mark on those who underwent the experience. The family was
dogged by tragedy. Two daughters were probably murdered and three were
divorced, while the elder son Friedrich seems to have been half-mad. He
deserted his wife and child; his ultimate fate is unknown, but there is
a curious story of a wild-looking man called Hahnemann who appeared in
America during a cholera epidemic, cured a large number of people, and
then vanished into the far West, never to be seen again; this was probably
Friedrich. Hahnemann's other son died as an infant in 1799, when Hahnemann
was forced to leave Koenigslutter owing to the hostility of the pharmacists
of that town (a harbinger of things to come). On the way to Hamburg the
carriage in which the family was travelling was overturned; Hahnemann's
son received fatal injuries and one of his daughters broke a leg, so that
the party had to interrupt the journey for over six weeks.
role of Frau Hahnemann amid all these vicissitudes is uncertain. No
doubt she had a difficult life, but there are suggestions that she
was something of a Xanthippe to her philosophical husband. In the
circumstances it is perhaps hard to blame her.
Meissen ... now
Between 1789 and 1805 the Hahnemann family
lived in literally dozens of places in eastern Germany. Hahnemann was
unable to settle anywhere, but was driven on by his restless spirit and
the need to make a living. All this travelling was a more difficult, indeed
hazardous, affair then than it would be today. The roads were bad and
often unsafe, and moreover the period was one of continual civil unrest.
Hahnemann's youth was marred by the Seven Years' War between Prussia and
Austria, while later, at Leipzig, he was to find himself caught up in
the Napoleonic Wars.
Although Hahnemann was not practising medicine
at this time he still had strong views on the subject, which he repeatedly
expressed forcibly in print. The prevailing medical theories of his day
were based on crude mechanical and hydraulic analogies as explanations
of physiological processes. Thus diseases were classified in terms of
tonicity or relaxation (our use of the word "tonic" derives
from this theory) or were ascribed to supposed intestinal inflammation.
There is no need to discuss these long-discredited theories in detail
but it is important to notice their practical implications for medical
School of St. Afra
| The main
resources of orthodox physicians in Hahnemann's day were large doses
of drugs, habitually given in complicated mixtures, and blood-letting,
often carried to horrifying lengths - indeed, to the point of complete
exsanguination, so that the final drops had to be squeezed from the unfortunate
patients. Hahnemann rejected both the theories and the practices of orthodox
medicine. It was, he held, inherently impossible to know the inner nature
of disease processes and it was therefore fruitless to speculate about
them or to base treatment on theories. As for complex drug mixtures and
blood-letting, both were dangerous and unjustifiable. Hahnemann had not
yet thought of homeopathy but he was a firm advocate of environmental
measures to promote health - fresh air, good food, and exercise. In these
opinions he was certainly in advance of his time, and the same is true
of his enlightened ideas about the right way to treat the mentally ill.
| In Hahnemann's
day the practice was to treat "lunatics" with great harshness;
they were given purges and emetics and were tied up, starved, and
flogged if they complained, soiled themselves, or became violent.
The University of Erlangen ... now
Hahnemann strongly attacked this crude form of behaviour therapy and
instead advocated kindness and patience. Hahnemann recommenced his wanderings
once more. Hahnemann's interests at this time, in any case, were as much
philosophical, for he was deeply preoccupied with medical speculations.
The discovery of homeopathy
The germ of homeopathy had been planted
in Hahnemann's mind by an experiment he carried out in 1790. It was suggested
to him by translating the Materia Medica of the Scottish physician Cullen.
Among the herbs described by Cullen was the Peruvian bark cinchona (quinine),
already in use as a treatment for malaria. Cullen followed orthodox opinion
in attributing its effectiveness to its 'tonic effect on the stomach'.
Hahnemann (who was never content to remain a mere translator but frequently
added his own opinions in notes) attacked this idea, on the reasonable
grounds that the taking of much more astringent substances than cinchona
did not cure fever; hence the therapeutic effects of cinchona must be
produced in some other way. Not content to leave the matter at the level
of theory, Hahnemann proceeded to experiment.
Dr. Cullen's materia medica
took for several days, as an experiment, four drachms of good china
(cinchona) daily. My feet and finger tips, etc., at first became cold;
I became languid and drowsy; my pulse became hard and quick; an intolerable
anxiety and trembling (but without a rigor); trembling in all the
limbs; then pulsation in the head, redness in the cheeks, thirst;
briefly, all those symptoms which to me are typical of intermittent
fever, such as the stupefaction of the senses, a kind of rigidity
of all joints, but above all the numb, disagreeable sensation which
seems to have its seat in the periosteum over all the bones of the
body - all made their appearance.
This paroxysm lasted for two or three hours every time, and recurred
when I repeated the dose and not otherwise. I discontinued the medicine
and I was once more in good health." [Haehl, vol. 1, 37]
Critics have objected that quinine does
not in fact produce the symptoms of malaria, but this seems rather beside
the point. What matters is that Hahnemann believed that it had done so
in his case and that this suggested the idea of homeopathy to him. (The
clinical thermometer had not been invented in his day, so the diagnosis
of 'intermittent fever' was necessarily based entirely on the symptoms.)
Nevertheless, many years were to elapse before the germ of homeopathy
grew into a full therapeutic system. Not until 1796 did Hahnemann publish
anything on the subject, and even then the essay he wrote was theoretical
rather than practical and it seems that he had not yet had much opportunity
to try his idea out on patients.
| In 1805,
after several more moves, Hahnemann settled for a time in Torgau,
on the Elbe, where he remained for an unwontedly long time - nearly
seven years. We know little about his life at this time, but it seems
he was practising medicine according to his new system. His finances
now improved and he was at last able to give up translating and concentrate
on his own writing.
Johanna Henriette Leopoldine
Numerous articles by him appeared, the most important of which was an
essay, The Medicine of Experience, which came out in 1806 and was the
forerunner of his definitive theoretical work, The Organon.
The Medicine of Experience was published,
like many of Hahnemann's writings, in The Journal of Practical Medicine,
edited by Hufeland - an eminent physician who was sympathetic to Hahnemann's
ideas. Although Hahnemann did not use the word homeopathy in print until
the following year, we find set forth in this essay the main features
of his method, which may be summarized as follows.
- Medicines are to be chosen on the basis of the patient's symptoms,
without reference to the supposed disease process underlying them. For
Hahnemann, the symptoms are the disease, and once they have gone the
disease is cured.
- The effects of drugs can be known only by means of experiments on
healthy people. It is no use relying on what is found in patients because
the symptoms of the disease will be difficult to distinguish from those
of the drug.
- Medicines must be chosen for the similarity of their effects to the
symptoms of the patient. This 'similimum principle' is of course the
kernel of the homeopathic method.
- Medicines are to be given in single doses instead of complex mixtures.
- Medicines are to be given in small doses to prevent "aggravations".
(Hahnemann believed that a correctly chosen medicine would always produce
some slight worsening of the patient's condition, no matter how transient;
this could be reduced to a minimum by judicious reduction of the size
of the dose.)
- Medicines are to be repeated only when recurrence of the patient's
symptoms indicates the need.
Dr. Hufeland Journal
principles constituted homeopathy as it stood when first formulated
by its originator. As a system it was very different from the orthodox
medicine of the day but from a modern point of view it could fairly
claim to be more scientific and certainly a lot safer. At any rate,
it quickly brought success to Hahnemann, who was henceforth not find
himself again penurious. What is remarkable is that he had taken some
fifty years to arrive at his system, and he was to go on adding to
it almost up to his death in his eighty-ninth year. He was indeed
a late developer.
As well as The Medicine of Experience,
Hahnemann published while in Torgau a book, in Latin, on pharmacology.
In it he described 27 drugs, giving the symptoms they produced in the
healthy body. It seems he had already tested the drugs on himself and
on his long-suffering family and the book is therefore the first published
record of 'provings'. Unfortunately he gave no details about the doses
he used or the manner of administration, a reticence that was to characterize
all his later writings and to detract from their value. Among the drugs
described by Hahnemann were Aconite (monkshood), Arnica (leopard's bane),
Belladonna (deadly nightshade), Chamomilla (chamomile), Nux vomica (poison
nut), and Pulsatilla (windflower), all of which are still widely used
in homeopathy today.
In 1810 Hahnemann published the first edition
of his major theoretical work, The Organon of Rational Healing (later
retitled The Organon of the Healing Art, and today often referred to simply
as The Organon). Further editions of this continued to appear at intervals
throughout his long life, while the sixth and last did not come to light
| The Organon
is the Bible of homeopathy and anyone who wants to study the subject
seriously must read it with close attention - a somewhat daunting
task. It is arranged in numbered paragraphs, to which are often appended
Dr. Hahnemann as Chemist
The style is difficult - long involved sentences that the most authoritative
English version, that of R.E. Dudgeon, does not render wholly pellucid.
In the course of his life, Hahnemann was to have second and third thoughts
about many of the ideas in the Organon; these he incorporated in the text
of each successive edition, without however always cancelling what he
had written previously, so that self-contradictions occur. Coming to terms
with Hahnemann's thought therefore involves the reader in some fairly
detailed textual criticism, and it is not surprising, if regrettable,
that many later homeopaths have shirked the task and consequently have
had an over-simplified view of what the Master actually taught.
The Organon initially excited rather little
interest, either hostile or friendly. Perhaps this was because of distractions
from public events, for the Napoleonic Wars were now raging. Napoleon
himself entrenched outside Dresden in the winter of 1810-11 and constructed
fortifications at other towns, including Torgau, further down the Elbe.
|Feeling understandably unsettled
by these preparations for war, in 1811 Hahnemann decided to move to
Leipzig; an unwise choice as it turned out, for Leipzig was to become
the site of one of the most decisive battles of the war.
This was the fourth time that Hahnemann
had gone to Leipzig; the first time had been as a grocer's boy, the
second as a medical student, and the third as a struggling physician.
None of these visits was a happy precedent, but on this occasion -
at least to begin with - things went better for him.
Fame at last
His first venture was to try to set up an
Institute for the Postgraduate Study of Homeopathy. However no physicians
enrolled for the course and Hahnemann therefore applied to be allowed
to deliver lectures at the university. Candidates for this honour were
expected to present a dissertation and to defend their theses in the mediaeval
fashion against a 'respondent'. With unwonted tact Hahnemann avoided the
contentious subject of homeopathy and instead presented a learned paper
designed to prove that the white hellebore of the ancients was the same
as the modern Veratrum album. The respondent was his son Friedrich. The
subject proved acceptable, the occasion went off well, and Hahnemann was
free to begin his lectures.
In the same month Napoleon began his calamitous
retreat from Moscow. By August 1813 he was back in Saxony with a new army;
he defeated the allies at Dresden and then moved north-west to Leipzig,
where he encamped outside the city accompanied by his unreliable ally
the King of Saxony. On the 18th October Napoleon fought a major battle
against the Allies, who were commanded by Prince Karl Schwarzenberg. Next
day Napoleon's Saxon allies turned against him; he was defeated and had
to leave Germany, never to return. Leipzig celebrated the defeat of the
French but the city was full of wounded men. Hahnemann took part in treating
the casualties and the victims of the epidemic that broke out in the city.
life in Leipzig returned to normal and Hahnemann was able to resume
his lectures. At first these were packed, large numbers of students
turning out for what they expected would be a rag occasion.
Hahnemann as Physician
Hahnemann himself took matters with extreme
seriousness but even his closest friends and disciples felt that the solemnity
of the setting left something to be desired. Hahnemann, his few remaining
white hairs carefully curled and powdered, and wearing formal clothes
that belonged to a bygone era, would sit down ceremoniously, take out
his watch and lay it before him on the table, and after clearing his throat
read a passage from The Organon. He would then dilate upon the ideas it
contained, becoming more and more excited and flushed, until at last he
broke out in a "raging hurricane" of abuse against orthodox
medicine and orthodox practitioners. This, of course, was what his audience
was waiting for.
Once the entertainment value of the lectures
had been exhausted, however, attendance dwindled and soon Hahnemann was
reduced to lecturing to a few devoted disciples. But his lack of success
was not due solely either to his subject matter or to his eccentricities
of dress and delivery; he was the target of serious opposition from the
Professor of Medicine, and even those students who would have liked to
come over to the new system of therapy found it unwise to do so.
Organon of Medicine
if Hahnemann failed to make his mark as a lecturer his sojourn in
Leipzig was immensely fruitful in another way, for it was at this
time that he carried out his main series of 'provings' with the help
of his small band of disciples.
The little band of enthusiasts was worked
hard by the Master. Not only did they have to try out the various drugs
on themselves and record the results with extreme conscientiousness; sometimes
they had to collect the substances, especially the herbal ones, themselves,
learning to recognize them in the field and to prepare the tinctures for
| Hahnemann did not leave
us any details of the doses he used or the manner of giving the drugs,
but from chance remarks elsewhere in his writings and from the accounts
of his provers we have a pretty fair idea of what went on.
Dr. Hahnemann's representation
teaching Homoeopathy, hering
All the provings at this time were carried out with tinctures (extracts)
of herbs or, in the case of insoluble substances, with 'first triturations'
(one part of substance ground up with nine parts of sugar of milk). That
is, Hahnemann used actual material doses for the provings. I emphasize
the point because it is often believed by homeopaths that he used high
dilutions ('potencies'). In fact, he did not do so until much later. His
usual practice seems to have been to give repeated doses until some effect
was produced; the actual amount was calculated on the basis of his own
previous experience. The provers were expected to record their symptoms
with the utmost care, and on presenting their notebooks to Hahnemann they
had to offer him their hands - the customary way of taking an oath at
German universities at that time - and swear that what they had reported
was the truth. Hahnemann would then question them closely about their
symptoms to elicit the details of time, factors that made them better
or worse, and so on. Coffee, tea, wine, brandy and spices were forbidden
to provers and so was chess (which Hahnemann considered too exciting),
but beer was allowed and moderate exercise was encouraged.
results of the Leipzig provings were published between 1811 and 1821
in a major six-volume work usually referred to as The Materia Medica
Pura. As he had done earlier, Hahnemann supplemented his researches
with reports of poisoning and over-dosage, and the resulting compilation
was a unique contribution to pharmacology; nothing like it had been
attempted before, and the information it contains (together with that
in The Chronic Diseases, which I shall discuss later) still forms
the basis of homeopathic practice today.
Not many modern homeopaths, however, make
use of The Materia Medica Pura; instead they rely on secondary or tertiary
sources. This is because Hahnemann unfortunately chose to present his
findings in a way that makes them virtually unreadable. Instead of giving
narrative descriptions of the provers' experiences he recorded their symptoms
in an anatomical scheme of his own devising, so that what we are left
with is a series of disconnected snippets that cannot be put together
in the mind to yield a whole picture. As the nineteenth-century homeopath
Robert Dudgeon remarked, it is as if a portrait gallery of family pictures
were arranged by features - all the noses in one place, all the eyes in
another, and so on. For this reason Hahnemann's original provings are
seldom referred to today.
A further problem from our point of view
is that Hahnemann's method of conducting his provings, though extremely
meticulous and painstaking, did nothing to eliminate the effect of suggestion.
The subjects knew what medicines they were taking (indeed, they had often
gathered the herbs themselves) and they therefore knew what effects they
might experience. It is unfair to criticize Hahnemann for not recognizing
the importance of suggestion, for this was not properly understood until
many years later, yet it has to be kept in mind in assessing his findings.
Another difficulty with the provings is that all the provers were men
(although it is likely that Hahnemann had earlier tried the medicines
on female members of his family). But in spite of any reservations one
may have there is no doubt that Hahnemann's Leipzig provings are a fascinating
piece of work and represent a serious scientific attempt to investigate
the properties of drugs.
| It would
be reasonable to expect that this achievement would represent the
summit of Hahnemann's career and that he would now remain in Leipzig,
surrounded by his small but devoted band of followers, while his own
fame and that of his system spread ever farther and won new converts.
After all, he was now in his sixties and he had made a name for himself
Dr. Hahnemann's monument at Kothen
it was hardly likely that he would now contribute any new ideas. And
yet, much still lay in the future. Hahnemann's very success made him the
target of much hostility, not only from doctors but also from his old
enemies, the apothecaries, who resented the fact that Hahnemann made up
his own medicines and advised his disciples to do likewise. For a time
their criticisms were silenced by the arrival in Leipzig of the victorious
Prince Schwarzenberg, the hero of the battle of Leipzig, who came for
the express purpose of being treated by Hahnemann. Unfortunately, after
an initial improvement the Prince died, and there was no lack of voices
to accuse Hahnemann of having precipitated his demise. The apothecaries
now obtained an injunction to prevent Hahnemann from dispensing his own
medicines, and since they were unwilling to keep them themselves his practice
could not continue. He was therefore forced to leave Leipzig.
The Duke of Anhalt Kothen, a small principality
some 36 miles away, was an ardent admirer of the new system, and he offered
Hahnemann the post of court physician in the tiny capital of his dominions.
Hahnemann had no choice but to accept.
Handwriting . . . Dr. Samuel Hahnemann
move to Kothen took place in 1821. A considerable change came over
Hahnemann in his new home. He was now virtually cut off, not merely
from mainstream medicine but even from his own disciples.
He became in effect a reclusive, hardly venturing outside his house.
But he was by no means inactive; patients suffering from various forms
of chronic disease came to him from all over Europe, and he continued
to think, write and develop his system, which now began to take on new
characteristics. While he was in Kothen he published a third, fourth and
fifth edition of The Organon, and also a second and third edition of The
Materia Medica Pura. It was in Kothen, too, that he elaborated his famous
theory of dynamization. In 1827 he summoned his oldest and closest two
disciples, Stapf and Gross, and informed them that he had discovered the
cause of all chronic diseases together with a completely new series of
medicines to cure such diseases. These new discoveries were set forth
in The Chronic Diseases, which appeared in five volumes. The theory of
chronic disease was to excite great controversy among homeopaths both
at the time and subsequently.
As the years went by and Hahnemann aged
he grew increasingly out of touch with general medical thought, but this
did not prevent him from engaging in acrimonious disputes with the most
eminent medical authorities, whom he treated with undisguised contempt.
It has to be said that his arguments were by this time almost invariably
superficial and irrelevant, for he was so utterly convinced of his own
rightness that any attack, however well reasoned, seemed to him an expression
of pure prejudice and ignorance.
In 1830, when he was 75, Hahnemann's wife
died. They had been married for nearly 48 years and had had eleven children.
Now, surely, Hahnemann's long life and career were all but over? But the
last, and in some ways most remarkable, episode was still to come.
October 1834 a mysterious visitor arrived at Kothen: a smart young
Frenchman, whom the customary visit of the barber next morning unmasked
as a beautiful girl. Mademoiselle Marie Melanie d'Hervilly, as the
young lady was named, gave out that she had come to consult Dr Hahnemann
about her health. However, a good deal of mystification attends both
Melanie and the circumstances of her visit. She was about 32 to 35
years old at the time (she kept her exact age a secret). She had had
a happy childhood in Paris but, according to her own account, her
mother became jealous of her as she grew older and so she was adopted
by a Monsieur and Madame le Thiere.
Melanie d' Hervilly
Later she became well known as a portraitist and this gained her the
entree into the best social and intellectual circles, in which she had
many influential friends. She seems to have been something of a feminist
and to have felt strongly about the restrictions imposed on women by society;
she had always had a leaning towards medicine, but of course at that time
it was out of the question for her to study it.
Paris House . . . Rue de milan
explanation of her visit to Kothen she said that her health had suffered
owing to grief caused by the loss of several friends. She read 'The
Organon' and resolved there and then to visit its author. Not much
is known about what happened next. What is certain, however, is that
within three months of her arrival in Kothen - in January 1835 - Melanie
and Hahnemann were married.
This event caused widespread astonishment.
Not surprisingly, Hahnemann's numerous enemies used the occasion to mock
him, while his unmarried daughters, who kept house for him, were understandably
less than enthusiastic; but Hahnemann himself found the experience reinvigorating
and rejuvenating. Six years earlier he had declined an invitation from
Stapf to visit Naumberg, on the grounds that travel had become impossible
for him so that he could not even visit his married children. Three months
after his marriage, however, Melanie took her husband off to Paris, leaving
Hahnemann's two unmarried daughters to live out their lives in virtual
Homeopathy was already established in Paris
and Hahnemann was made welcome there. It was expected that the Master
would restrict his activities to writing, but instead he took up medical
practice and soon became very successful. In the vigour of his Indian
summer he even went so far as to reverse his long-established custom of
not making home visits and would drive out to patients and pay house calls
even up to midnight. Melanie assisted him, studied homeopathy under his
tuition, and became a practitioner herself. The prosperous couple acquired
a large house in the Rue de Milan, and Hahnemann, who had always been
accustomed to living simply and frugally, now found himself in circumstances
that were comfortable, even luxurious. There seems no doubt that his final
years with Melanie were happy, and though many of his followers, both
during his lifetime and later, attacked her bitterly, Hahnemann himself
apparently found peace and fulfillment with her.
Hahnemann died on 2 July 1843. Melanie kept
the funeral private, and his biographer Haehl implies that she forgot
him as soon as he was buried; but this seems at variance with the fact
that when Hahnemann's body was disinterred in 1896 a lock of Melanie's
hair was found round his neck.
Dr. Hahnemann . . . Demise
Tomb at Paris
Dissension among Hahnemann's followers
by no means ceased at his death. Much of this concerned the Master's literary
relics, including the sixth edition of 'The Organon', on which he had
been working shortly before his death. This material remained in the possession
of his widow, who continued to practise homeopathy. At her death it passed
to her adopted daughter, who had married the son of von Boenninghausen,
one of Hahnemann's most devoted disciples. After many difficulties Haehl
succeeded in obtaining the manuscript, which was finally published in