2005 | Vol 2 | Issue 11
A Multifaceted Scientific Renaissance
surfing on the net we came across the web pages, What is Homoeopathy
and How Does It Work? presented by Emma sheppard, Oakham School,
Rutland, UK. This extended Essay (EE) for the IB Diploma, is based
on research and experiment. The paper has probed all aspects done
so far and possibilities to prove homoeopathic medicines has imprint
and is scientific. Here we place some exerpts from his paper.
In the course of this essay I have attempted
to answer the questions “What is homoeopathy” and “How
does homoeopathy work”, concentrating more on how homoeopathy
works than its system of philosophies.
believes in a dynamic vital force unique to all organisms that controls
that organism’s state of health – each vital force vibrates
at its own level for an optimum state of health. Any infection or
toxin has its own vibration, and during interaction with the body’s
vital force it creates resonance, resulting in disease of the body.
Stress and the environment affect susceptibility of the vital force
believe that “like cures like”, and so a dynamic remedy
is required, made from only one extract of plant, animal or mineral
origin, although compounds can be made; only one remedy is administered
once. Comparisons of homoeopathic and allopathic drugs for travel
sickness and heart failure have been made.
Homoeopathic remedies should not work as
they have been diluted past the Avogadro Limit, but placebo-controlled
tests have shown them to work. A mention is made of Dr Jacques Benveniste’s
“memory of water”. Other theories have since been put
- That water stores energy from the source
extract transferred by succussion in the vibratory level. The
higher the dilution is, the more vibratory energy the water
molecules have, and so the more effective they are. Greater
vibratory energies are shown in ice crystals made from homoeopathic
- That the elimination of the source drug
during dilution up to the Avogadro Limit causes the formation
of white holes and remnant waves, inducing hyperprotons; past
the Avogadro Limit the hyperprotons are energies by succussion,
and induce a structural change in the water. Organisms have
remnant waves that are altered by illness and homoeopathic remedies.
Homoeopathy, since its birth with Samuel
Hahnemann over 200 years ago has become an alternative to traditional
Western medicine, and many people put their faith in its methods
and philosophies. Homoeopathy has been extended to veterinary medicine,
where I first encountered it; my curiosity about it sparked the
topic of this essay.
is, however, not wholly understood. It appears to work, but few
scientists accept it. There is no clear-cut answer to the question
of how homoeopathy works, and in trying to answer that question
scientists have been ruined. I will not be attempting to find a
definitive answer, but what I will do is lay out the most accepted
theories and give my response to them.
The Vital Force and Resonance
The vital force of an organism, which is
the basis for J. T. Kent’s lectures on homoeopathic philosophy
(as cited in Natural Veterinary Healthcare), has a formative intelligence
that controls the organism, adapting to the changes it is subjected
to. The vital force maintains the balance of the organism, and so
to encourage the vital force is to encourage health; it reacts to
all harmful stimuli.
harmful stimulus, be it bacteria, a virus or toxins, causes a reaction
in the vital force that depends on the heath of the organism at
the time, as well as the strength of the harmful stimulus. However,
each organism has its own state of health - the organism’s
vital force has its own optimum state of vibration, or ease. As
the harmful stimulus produces a change in the vibration of the vital
force, a similar vibration creates resonance within the vital force
that moves the organism into a state of disease, away from its optimal
according to Vithoulkas (Natural Veterinary Healthcare, 1999), is
excited by weakness and lowered vitality; the infection may be continually
present in the environment, but once vitality falls – through
stress, for example – the harmful stimulus can influence the
The harmful stimulus can, therefore, cause
a different reaction in three different individuals, depending on
their own individual states of ease and predisposition. For example,
the same flu virus infects two people; one appears to have a cold,
the second spends a week in bed; each individual’s vital force
resonates to the same stimulus differently.
The Guiding Principle
Dr. Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), in his
criticism of modern medicine, turned to homoeopathy. He researched,
and concluded ‘that the effect a substance has on the healthy
organism indicated its curative powers for similar disease symptoms’;
in effect, the same substance that induces a fever in a healthy
man cures the fever in an ill man.
– and Paracelsus – gave the guiding principle of homoeopathy,
that same must be treated by same, or similia similibus curentur.
The Vital Force – From a Biological Perspective
To a biologist, the theoretical presence
of a vital force can be attributed to self-awareness and response
to illness. An infection produces damage and symptoms because the
body is using resources normally “used” by other organs,
eliciting a response in the form of a symptom.
This flow of resources in fighting disease
could be explained in the vital force, however no symptoms does
not necessarily mean that there is no disease present, but that
the body has the resources to cope with the infection. If the infection
– the stimulus discussed earlier- is strong enough, or alien
enough, to demand more resources to fight it, then symptoms are
Although the concept of formative intelligence is a little incredible,
the concept of a vital force is possible – and it is a useful
euphemism for the ebb and flow of resources within the body.
How Homoeopathic Remedies
Unlike allopathic medicines, there is no
proven mechanism by which homoeopathy works. Allopathic drugs work
by the interaction of the drug with systems in the body, but that
cannot be the case in homoeopathy.
Many of the sources or extracts used in
homoeopathy are toxic to the body, and in order to eliminate the
toxic effects the extract is diluted. Homoeopathic dilutions are
labeled with the units C and x (or D). Adding 1 part of the extract
to 9 parts water or alcohol makes a 1x solution; a 1C solution is
made by adding 1 part of the extract with 99 parts of alcohol or
water, and then shaken vigorously, a process called succussion.
12C, the drug reaches the Avogadro Limit, where it is highly unlikely
that any of the active ingredient remains in the solvent, and as
a result many scientists and doctors refuse to accept that homoeopathy
One possible explanation for the action
of homoeopathic remedies on the health of a person has been that
the drugs work by a medical phenomenon known as the Placebo Effect.
The Placebo Effect occurs when a patient experiences alleviation
of their symptoms while taking a placebo – a sugar pill that
they are informed is a drug to cure them. The patient’s stress
is relieved, and so that is thought to lead to an alleviation of
symptoms; the placebo is psychosomatic.
homoeopathic remedies cannot be psychosomatic, because veterinary
homoeopathy is a growing trend, and the animals treated have no
prior expectation of cure when dosed with any drugs. In cases of
horses suffering from Cushings (Horizon, 21 May 2003), a success
rate of up to 80% has been found with homoeopathic remedies –
but there is no expectation of cure in the horse’s mind.
David Reilley, in 1986, investigated the action of homoeopathic
remedies in a clinical trial, using a homoeopathic remedy against
a placebo – an accepted method of testing for new drugs (Horizon,
21 May 2003). A homoeopathically prepared remedy for hayfever, containing
pollen, was tested alongside patients given a placebo of sugar pills.
It was found that those patients who had taken the active medicine
– the homoeopathic remedy – had the greater reduction
in symptoms, proving that homoeopathy is not a placebo – however
this has still not been accepted by many medical minds.
The Arndt-Schultz Law, The D8 Effect
Arndt-Schultz law is an early pharmacological law: ‘for every
substance, small doses stimulate, moderate doses inhibit, large
doses kill’ as shown in the diagram. The Arndt-Schultz Law
states the homoeopathic principle of dilutions; homoeopathy operates
in the area where stimulation occurs, whereas allopathy operates
in the inhibitory area of dosages.
allopathic recommendation of dosing lies at the point ED50, at approximately
50% of the maximum dose – while homoeopathy uses the threshold
does at the beginning of the dosage scale.
thanks to the work of Boyd in the early forties¹ works in accordance
with the Arndt-Schultz law. Boyd found that while large doses of
mercuric chloride inhibited the enzyme activity of malt distase,
homoeopathically prepared 61x solutions of mercuric chloride actually
accelerated the activity of malt distase – while the control
of distilled water showed no inhibition or acceleration of enzymatic
D8 effect is a phenomenon that occurs in homoeopathically prepared
solutions of differing potencies. Studies conducted have shown that
‘the relation between amount of agent and effect is not linear’.
The graph of effect against potency showed a maximum effect at the
D8 potency; allopathy would predict that there would be the maximum
effect at a much higher potency.
of the results of the D8 effect and Arndt-Schulz Law – and
also the high dilutions – is that homoeopathic remedies are
not dangerous to healthy people or animals. Because of this, homoeopathic
remedies can be given to animals in their drinking water, and if
any other animals were to drink the treated water, they would not
be affected – and the same is true for human homoeopathic
is a relatively new subject – and many studies are incomplete
– springing from the Arndt-Schultz Law, and studies began
in the 1960s on the toxic effects of poisons at low dosages. Hormesis
is in fact a phenomenon that demonstrates the now almost-forgotten
Arndt-Schultz Law: that toxins have a stimulatory effect at low
levels, and inhibitory effect at high doses.
Hormesis has gone further than the Arndt-Schulz Law, in showing
an unexplained homoeopathic phenomenon, that of rhythmicity. Rhythmicity
shows that as dilution increases the reaction alters several times
from stimulation to inhibition and vice versa. However, as the dilution
becomes extreme, the reaction fades, unless it is succussed after
The Memory of Water?
possible theory for how homoeopathy works was the ‘memory
of water’ put forward by Dr. Jacques Benveniste in June 1988,
in the journal “Nature”. Benveniste, an expert in allergies,
experimented with homoeopathically prepared solutions that should
have induced a change in dyed basophils; although the solution did
not contain any molecules – and was simply water – it
had a positive effect on the basophils.
However, once tested
under investigation by Nature, it was found that the positive
results were chance, not scientific evidence for water being
able to remember the shape of the molecule of extract that
it once contained.
Storing Energy ?
Since Dr. Benveniste
– who still stands by his theory of the memory of water
– investigations have continued and one possible way
that homoeopathic dilutions work is to be found in the field
Dr. Jacques Benveniste
Theoretical research has shown that the effect
of homoeopathic remedies must come from the water that the solutions
are made from, especially as there are no other molecules in the
remedies except water molecules. All reactions, even biomolecular
ones, require energy in order to occur, and that energy is contained
within the reacting molecules. As a result, it is thought that
homoeopathy works by the type of energy storage in the water molecules.
Water, along with all other
molecules, stores energy in four quantised ways
- In translation – the energy of moving
the whole molecule from one place to another (also called kinetic
- In rotation – the energy of spinning
the whole molecule.
- In vibration – the energy of vibrating
the molecular bonds.
- In electronic excitation – the energy
associated with the electrons of the molecule.
storage is the lowest energy required, and is the energy that
triggers the majority of all chemical reaction, and is altered
simply by collision between molecules, even if they are the same.
For this reason it is thought to be too low to make homoeopathy
at the other end of the scale, is too high. In order to excite
electrons, visible – or better still, ultra-violet –
light is needed. Rotational energy is thought to be too low an
energy. The frequency needed to rotate water molecules is 2.45x109
Hz, the frequency of a microwave – approximately 1.62x10-24
which lies between rotational and electronic energy, is an accepted
means of storing energy in physics; it is also found in all three
states of matter (gas, liquid and solid). It is now thought that
succussion causes exchange of vibrational energy between the extract
being diluted and the water. The water is left with a ‘vibratory
impact’ that deepens with each further dilution as more
and more succussion occurs.
of vibrational energy left on the water molecules differs with
each extract used, as each extract has its own differing levels
of vibrational energy; if a molecule absorbs energy it changes
its shape according to the energy it has absorbed.
Homoeopathic remedies have been examined for structural changes
(Callinan, P), which do appear. However, they only appear when
the remedy has been prepared by succussion, and only when an extract
has been used; a homoeopathic remedy can not be made from water
Ice crystal structures
show the energy status of the water contained, and they effectively
show the changes in structure in homoeopathic water, particularly
where vibrational energy is concerned. As vibrational energy increases,
the size of the ice crystals formed increases – and these
largest crystals are to be found at the highest potencies, of
dilutions, of homeopathic remedies3.
The Theory of High Dilutions
The Theory of High
Dilutions is a theory based on a new mathematical model and the
quantum theory that has been put forward as an explanation to
how homoeopathic remedies work. It was developed by a physician,
Roland Conte, a mathematician, Henri Berlocchi, and an allopathically
trained doctor, Yves Lasne (who died in February 2001).
They observed changes
in the infra-red spectrum of homoeopathic solutions – which
should have the same infra-red spectrum as water – and when
analysed with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data, the Cotonian
frequency was developed. The Cotonian frequency is unique to each
remedy, and produces quantifiable results. The Cotonian model
is based on several quantum theories and involves more higher
mathematics than is sensible to try and explain here. The mathematical
theory uses quantum mathematics, as well as Berliocchi’s
semiotic mathematics, which he developed as part of his work on
theory is that the disappearance of the extract molecules during
dilution creates white holes in the solution; white holes are the
opposite of black holes - the other side, as it were, of a spiral
black hole through space-time - and are thought to be a small but
nevertheless highly-energised area of space-time. These white holes
are singularities that induce a remnant wave proportional to the
amount of particles lost. With the regular appearance of singularities
created by successive dilutions, a regular sequence of remnant waves
is created, increasing the amplitude of the remnant wave. After
a certain time, the wave energy is released as infra-red radiation,
and is easily measured.
hole and remnant waves trigger nuclear reactions that emit beta
energy - which is associated with electrons - and also change the
NMR data and the IR radiation. However the nuclear reactions are
known to have a low efficiency.
Avogadro limit is reached, at about 12C, no more white holes can
appear, as there are no molecules of the extract left to disappear.
However, continued dilution and succussion stimulates hyperproton
expansion. Hyperproton are free protonswith no mass or charge formed
through the interaction of protons and white holes, which are thought
to be able to pass in and out of space-time. Hyperprotons produce
irradiation on matter surrounding them, and alter the structure
of the water.
Theory of Universal Wave Function was developed in order to explain
the effect of high dilution on organisms. Toxic substances trigger
disease indicated by vector and phase displacement, and treatment
with a remedy containing the counteracting phase displacement restores
health. Organisms have a continuous process of elimination within
their cells - from metabolic reactions, presumably - that can create
white holes, and therefore remnant waves. Each organism can be considered
to have their own remnant wave profile; illness disturbs this profile.
Dr.Yves Lasne (left) and Dr. Rolland Conte
discussing the Theory of HighDilutions
is a discipline in medicine that is gaining status, perhaps not
with some of the staunchest scientists, but certainly with doctors,
vets and their patients. Some of homoeopathy’s beliefs are
a little incredible, hardly scientific explanations of what are
undoubtedly scientific phenomena. However, it must be considered
that, when some of those philosophies were formulated, the concept
of a “vital force”, even to a scientist, was entirely
is very different from allopathy, in both its belief system and
its methods. However, there are a few similarities – both
allopathic and homoeopathic drugs can be formed from plant or mineral
extract, as the drugs used for heart failure show. Homoeopathic
remedies, despite the obvious downsides that they take slightly
longer to take effect, and that there is always the chance that,
for that particular animal or person, they might not work (as is
possible with allopathic medicines as well), have no side effects.
Homoeopathic remedies, because they use only a small amount of plant
extract and water as their basic ingredients, are also inexpensive
to produce - and often cheaper than allopathic drugs.
theories as to how homoeopathy works are many and hugely different
at times. They tend to use more and more biochemistry -and in the
case of the High Dilution Theory, biophysics.
of the problems that science has with accepting homoeopathy are
that, by the rules of allopathic science, it should not work. However,
placebo-controlled tests and isolated cell tests - with the exception
of Dr. Benveniste’s tests - show that homoeopathic remedies
do work and there is pharmacological evidence to support it. There
is no reason why homoeopathy should work along allopathic lines;
as Mark Twain said: ‘The reason why truth is so much stranger
than fiction is that there is no requirement for it to be consistent.’
theory of Energy Storage to the Theory of High Dilutions; there
seems to be more evidence for the former and you don’t need
a PhD in quantum mathematics to really understand it. Both theories
work on the basis that homoeopathy works, and certainly in the Theory
of High Dilutions, that white holes can be formed in a certain way
can produce certain effects. If in the future one of those assumed
actions is proved to be wrong, then those theories will no longer
thing has become apparent, and makes a link between homoeopathic
philosophy and theoretical mechanisms: resonance. The concept expressed
by Vithoulkas on resonance, is echoed in both the Energy Storage
and High Dilutions theories. In the latter, the remnant wave profile
of the body is disturbed by illness. In Energy Storage, the homoeopathic
remedies have their own vibrational energy. This indicates that
there might be a little truth in all of those theories and philosophies.
We’ll just have to wait for the proof.
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